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DAVID LANG

Memorial Ground

THE EAST NEUK OF FIFE / UK-WIDE

Image credit: David Lang by Peter Serling

WW1 Heritage / Memorial Ground

The Battle of the Somme

1 July – 18 November 1916

The Battle of the Somme was a key battle in the First World War, and one of the bloodiest battles in military history. Over the course of 141 days, more than a million men became casualties.

In December 1915 British and French officers agreed to mount a joint attack on German positions in Picardy, astride the River Somme. After the Germans launched a devastating assault on French forces near Verdun in February 1916, it became clear that the British army would need to lead the campaign. Britain’s General Sir Douglas Haig hoped for a decisive breakthrough, but also saw that the battle would harden his largely inexperienced army.

From late June, British artillery bombarded German positions, firing more ammunition from more guns than ever before. On 1 July 1916, British and French troops launched their assault. While the more experienced French forces captured their objectives with only light losses, the British Army endured a day of disaster. By nightfall, after a day of ferocious German resistance, the British Army had suffered 57,470 casualties.

Over gruelling months, the battle became a relentless attritional struggle. The Allies succeeded in making small advances into enemy territory, but slowly and at heavy cost, as the German army made equally costly counterattacks. On 15 September, the British used tanks for the first time. As the battle ground on into autumn, the worsening weather made living conditions ever harsher.

The Battle of the Somme ended on 18 November 1916, when General Sir Douglas Haig called a halt. In four and a half months, the British and French forces had advanced six miles. The British had suffered 419,654 casualties, the Germans around half a million. Though failing to deliver a decisive breakthrough, the battle had wide-ranging strategic effects. In its scale, the battle marked the ramping up of both Britain’s industrial war effort and the fighting power of its army. In wresting the strategic initiative from Germany, the battle changed the course of the war.

 

Men of the Border Regiment resting in shallow arched dugouts near Thiepval Wood, August

 

Hot dinner rations being issued from field kitchens in the Ancre area, October

 

Men of the Black Watch resting by the roadside, Contalmaison Wood

 

The road to Guillemont viewed from Waterlot Farm. In the words of the Official History, it was “straight, desolate and swept by fire”

 

Two soldiers cooking with a scrounged stove in a trench at Ovillers

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